If your assets are in a tax-favored retirement fund such as a company or Keogh pension or profit-sharing plan (including thrift and savings plans), 401(k), IRA or stock bonus plan when it comes time to take distributions you have several options:
- Take everything in a lump sum
- Keep the money in the account, with regular distributions or withdrawals on an as-needed basis
- Purchase an annuity with all or part of the funds
- Take a partial withdrawal (leaving the balance for withdrawal later)
- Take a rollover distribution
- A combination of any of the above
Your retirement assets may be distributed in kind as employer stock, or an annuity or insurance contract. Sometimes certain withdrawal options may be associated with certain retirement plans, for instance, annuities are more common with pension plans. Other types of plan favor the other options, but for the most part most of these options are available for most plans. And more than likely, you’ll want to preserve the tax shelter as long as possible by withdrawing no more than you need at any given time.
Timing your withdrawal can be a factor, too. Withdrawals before age 59 ½ risk a tax penalty. At the other end, withdrawals are generally required to start at age 70 ½ or face a tax penalty. The only exceptions are Roth IRAs and non-owner-employees still working beyond that age.